At elimination of excess acidity of the soil and introduction of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers in the majority of soil and climatic zones of the country the greatest influence on a crop, a belkovost and other indicators of quality of grain of barley renders nitric fertilizers. Therefore now when the problem of quality of grain of barley is particularly acute especially, much attention is paid to nitric fertilizers: reveal optimum norms, forms, terms and ways of their introduction.
Nitrogen comes to potatoes plants during all vegetation, however most of all it is consumed in the period of a butonization - blossoming. At the same time good security with nitrogen at early stages of growth promotes faster and powerful formation of vegetative weight. Thanks to that plants use spring reserves of moisture in the soil more productively and better form a crop of tubers.
Potatoes negatively react to insufficient phosphoric and potash food. Phosphorus promotes faster formation of tubers and improvement of their quality. Under its influence the content of starch increases in tubers.
When developing system of fertilizers of potatoes it is necessary to consider precocity of a grade. Early grades are more sympathetic on mineral fertilizers, they use nutrients more intensively during the short period. Late-ripening grades acquire nutrients of the soil and manure better.
Development, and also a condition of branch are influenced by many indicators. One of them is efficiency of use of an arable land which is defined by structure of cultivated areas and productivity of crops.
On the insignificant square the illuvial loams which are pochvoobrazuyushchy breed for a cespitose gleestykhnamytykh of the soils formed on hollows, waterways, the bottoms of beams and ravines are widespread. They have brownish gray and gray coloring, loamy mechanical structure, ogleena.
Pochvoobrazuyushchy and covering breeds also have a great influence on formation of a soil cover and on agricultural use of lands. They define mechanical and modular structure of the soil.
The combined system of fertilizers is most widespread in the Nonchernozem zone. In it mineral fertilizers and limy materials are combined with application in a crop rotation of covering manure, torfonavozny composts and green fertilizers. Introduction of physiologically sour mineral fertilizers on cespitose and podsolic soils under cultures, exacting to reaction of the environment, negatively influences a crop.
Phosphoric and potash fertilizers have positive impact on barley on soils with the low maintenance of mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium; unilateral introduction of nitric fertilizers on such soils is inefficient.
Potatoes - a photophilous plant. Therefore the choice of optimum density of standing is of great importance. Most expediently such density of standing at which in specific conditions of growth of plants formation about 40 thousand sq.m of a sheet surface on 1 hectare it is provided corresponds at average norm of application of fertilizers of 2.250 thousand stalks on 1 hectare at food and 2.270 thousand stalks at seed potatoes.
Potatoes have specific requirements to root food. that important biological feature is caused by underdeveloped root system. For the normal growth, development and accumulation of a crop potatoes need bigger amount of nutrients, than many other field cultures.
Tubers of potatoes contain about 25% of solids, including. 22% of starch, 1. 3% of proteins, okolo1 cellulose %. 3% of fat and. 1% of cindery substances. Potatoes source of vitamins C, B1, B2, B6, RR and K. Young tubers are especially vitamin-rich.
At development of systems of fertilizer of potatoes it is necessary to consider precocity of a grade. Early grades are more sympathetic on mineral fertilizers, they use nutrients more intensively during the short period. Late-ripening grades acquire nutrients of the soil and manure better.
Water and glacial loams (mechanical structure – easy average ). Have brown-gray color. They are condensed, porist of poshnovato-clay structure. In fractional structure fractions of small sand, large dust, silt prevail.
In cases when in limits to 60 km there took place change of breeds on their mechanical structure, hollows binomial deposits – the water and glacial sand spread by thin loams when change of breeds took place at a depth of 60 km do1 m.