Fats. Fats are formed by the same chemical elements, as carbohydrates. Fats are insoluble in water. They are a part of cellular membranes. Fats are also a spare power source in an organism. At full splitting of one gram of fat 39, 1 kJ of energy is released.
Products of biosynthesis come to gleams of cavities and tubules of EPS where they concentrate in the special device – Golgi's complex located near a kernel. Golgi's complex participates in transport of products of biosynthesis to a surface of a cage and in their removal from a cage, in formation of lysosomes, etc.
The cellular center can be observed in the cages capable to share. It consists of two rhabdoid little bodies – tsentrioly. Being about a kernel and Golgi's complex, the cellular center participates in cell division process, in formation of a spindle of division.
As a result of a mitosis all daughter cells contain an identical set of chromosomes and the same genes. Therefore, the mitosis is the way of cell division consisting in exact distribution of genetic material between daughter cells, both daughter cells receive a diploidic set of chromosomes.
Modern cytology – science complex. It has the most close connections with other biological sciences, for example, with botany, zoology, physiology, theory of evolution of the organic world, and also with molecular biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics.
In electronic microphotos it is visible that mitochondrions consist of two membranes: external and internal. The internal membrane forms the outgrowths called by crosses which are entirely covered with enzymes. Existence the krist increases the general surface of mitochondrions that is important for vigorous activity of enzymes.
The cage is covered with the membrane consisting of several layers of molecules, providing selective permeability of substances. In cytoplasm the smallest structures – organelles are located. Treat organelles of a cage: endoplasmic network, ribosomes, mitochondrions, lysosomes, Golgi's complex, cellular center.
Biological value of a mitosis hugely. Functioning of bodies and fabrics of a metaphyte would be impossible without preservation of identical genetic material in uncountable cellular generations. The mitosis provides such important processes of activity as an development, growth, maintenance of structural integrity of fabrics at continuous loss of cages in the course of their functioning (replacement of the lost erythrocytes, an intestines epithelium and so forth), restoration of bodies and fabrics after damage.
Both types of an endoplasmic network not only participate in synthesis of organic substances, but also accumulate and transport them to destinations, regulate a metabolism between a cage and the environment surrounding it.
Everyone ribosomes is divided by a fillet into big and small parts (subjedinitsa). Often some ribosomes unite a thread of the special ribonucleic acid (RNA) called information (i-RNK). Ribosomes carry out unique function of synthesis of proteinaceous molecules from amino acids.
In any metaphyte there are two types of cages – somatic (cells of bodies and gametes or gametes. In gametes the number of chromosomes are twice less, than in the somatic. In somatic cages all chromosomes are presented by couples – such set is called diploidic and is designated 2n. Pair chromosomes (identical in size, a form, a structure) are called homologous.
Cytoplasm is penetrated by the difficult mesh system connected with an external plasmatic membrane and consisting of the tubules which are reported among themselves, bubbles, sacks. Such mesh system is called by vakuolyarny system.